The Aztecs were severely weakened by diseases that the Spanish brought such as smallpox, influenza, and malaria. How long did the Spain rule over Mexico? It was located in Central America, in part of modern day Mexico. … The soldier was killed, and, likely when his body was ransacked, an Aztec caught the disease. The Spanish party is soon … What happened to Montezuma? The Spanish had a long experience fighting Muslims in their own country (at least 500 years) and they had developed a warrior class that was the best in the world. In many cases, the Spanish treated the Aztecs as slaves. The Aztec Empire was in existence from 1428 until 1521, when it was defeated by the Spanish Conquistadors and their allies. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. According to Diaz, a soldier of Cortes, … Instead, the quick collapse of the Aztec empire probably depended on other factors such as the pandemic diseases that they brought to Mexico, which can be defined as one of main causes of the quick fall of the Aztec Empire. Cortes reported that the Aztecs had city-states that were comparable, for government and organisation, to the ones in the Italian peninsula in his time. How did the Aztecs treat people they conquered in war? Moreover, Mexica’s armour was made of cotton, though it was light and protected them well against in fights with other Aztecs, it was not resistant enough to protect them from the Spanish’s weapons. Their civilisation represented the last stage of the evolution of the Mesoamerican native civilisations, and reached its apex in the early sixteenth century, just before it was destroyed in 1521 by the Spanish invaders. He also described the marketplaces selling precious goods, bath and shops that he personally saw during his exploration of the Central American territories. Some people captured in war were used for human sacrifice. They did not attend the sacrifice ceremonies that were given in their honor. The answer is yes; the Castellan sword. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Mexica’s obsidian swords and other close-combat weapons were no match for the steel-made Castellan swords that were way more efficient and resistant. Tenochtitlan was surrounded by water on all sides, but was also accessible via big roads, called causeways, and long canals along … In hopes of expanding European society into the area, the indigenous people ultimately lost their religion, their culture, their freedom, and their dignity under this system. Aztec drawing of smallpox victims. How did Cortes treat the Aztecs? You can use them to display text, links, images, HTML, or a combination of these. In particular, they detailed the plagues of cocoliztli (Nahuati for “pest”), a disease that seemed far more … Cortés founded Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. According to Diaz, a soldier of Cortes, Montezuma sent his painters to the Spanish quarters to depict all the encampment and the Spanish army, and in the Cortes’ representation he saw a resemblance to Quintalbor, an Aztec lord. When they returned, the Aztec army quickly overwhelmed the Spanish, killing many and causing the rest to retreat. It really depended on the person. Quickly, smallpox spread among the population. ( Log Out /  The Mexica were a warrior civilisation that was able to impose its rule in Mexico, rising among all the other Aztecs for their military ability and might. Become a Study.com member to unlock this Their main city was Tenochtitlan (today’s Mexico City). killed most of them in Mexico city area. The Spanish did not act like gods. The Aztec empire was a flourishing and successful empire that had been ruled by Moctezuma for seventeen years, before it was colonized by the Spanish conquistadors who killed Moctezuma and crumbled the empire by destroying its cities. Non warriors not killed were enslaved- again normal practice for the time. The gunpowder weapons, like the cannons, were mostly use as a sort of psychological weapon or to drive them out of their hideouts. The answer is, as we already saw, a sum of two main factors: Castellan swords and diseases brought by the Spanish, for which the Mexica had no antibodies nor effective cure, plus a crucial one: the winning military strategy of the Spanish, and the alliance with other local Aztec tribes. Upon encountering natives in the new land, he notified Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain, who instructed Columbus to make the natives subjects of Spain. The Aztecs and Inca Empires were rich in gold, silver, precious stones, and other things the Spanish found less valuable, like brilliant clothes made of bird feathers. When the Spanish conquistadors first fired their weapons, the blast and smoke shocked and amazed the Aztec people. During the same 160 years – from 1520 to 1680 – between 85% and 95% of Mesoamerica's native population died. MILITARILY SUPERIOR OR BETTER STRATEGISTS? Spanish’s military success was due to their military superiority and also to the support of local Mesoamerican tribes. Today it is the capital of Mexico and one of the largest cities in the world. Favorite Answer. After that, it was divided up among the men. How did the Aztec treat the Spanish when they first arrived? The first Europeans that came into contact with the Aztecs were the Spanish in 1519. ( Log Out /  All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. They did not want to kill them because they might be gods after all, but the Aztecs wanted them to move along. the factors that helped the spanish defeat the aztecs were the european diseases that killed millions,and the aztecs had not developed any natural immunity to european disease. There are many myths about the way the Spanish defeated them, such as that the Spanish beat them because they had gunpowder weapons, but also since they took advantage of the fact that initially they believed that Cortes was their returning god Quetzalcoatl, and also because they were militarily superior to them. To find answers, Acuna-Soto spent a dozen year poring through ancient documents written by 16th century Spanish priests who worked with the Aztecs to preserve a record of their history, language and culture. GUNPOWDER WEAPONS: WERE REALLY THE KEY OF SPANISH VICTORY? QUETZALCOATL MYTH ( Log Out /  These texts also tracked key natural events—storms, droughts, frosts and illness. -Clendinnen, I 1995, Aztecs: an interpretation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. As well, the metal armor of the Spanish fascinated the Aztec because they did not have any similar form of protection. Cengage Learning, Stamford, Connecticut (USA). What did the Spanish do to much of the Aztec art and architecture? Slavery in the Spanish American colonies was an economic and social institution which existed throughout the Spanish Empire.In its American territories, it initially bound indigenous people and later slaves of African origin.. ancient history, Aztecs, history, Uncategorized. Personally, I think that the Mexica are one of the most fascinating civilisations of all times. Conquered people had to pay tributes to the emperor. The smallpox weakened the Aztec cities around Tenochtitlan which soon fell to the Spanish and made it possible for the Spaniards to lay siege to Tenochtitlan. The Empire was actually a confederation of three city-states that shared power with one another. Explain at least three similarities and... What factors enabled the Spanish to conquer the... Hernan Cortes: Accomplishments, Exploration Route & the Aztecs, New Spain: Spanish Explorers and Spanish Colonies, ILTS Social Science - History (246): Test Practice and Study Guide, GED Social Studies: Civics & Government, US History, Economics, Geography & World, MTTC Social Studies (Secondary)(084): Practice & Study Guide, TExES History 7-12 (233): Practice & Study Guide, NY Regents Exam - US History and Government: Help and Review, Prentice Hall America: History of our Nation: Online Textbook Help, High School World History: Homework Help Resource, TCI History Alive World Connections: Online Textbook Help, Glencoe U.S. History - The American Vision: Online Textbook Help, Middle School US History: Tutoring Solution, Prentice Hall United States History: Online Textbook Help, Biological and Biomedical The peoples that the Aztecs conquered were treated little more than oppressed vassals. worst problem was the diseases brought by Spanish to susceptible Aztecs, etc- the smallpox epidemics with 10% fatalities for Spanish had over 50% fatalities among the natives and pretty much meant few combat affective's left to resist. The siege was characterised by a series of brutal and chaotic fights along the waterways and within the City precincts of Tenochtitlan as the Spaniards sought to establish control over the City whilst the Aztecs feverishly defended it. In our previous animated historical documentary we have covered the Rise of the Aztecs. Change ), This is a text widget, which allows you to add text or HTML to your sidebar. But Montezuma had his doubts about them. Moreover, the perception of the Spanish and especially of Cortes as an Aztec god, appear to be reported only by Spanish sources. The Spanish were helped by the Tlaxcala, a Mesoamerican civilisation rival of the Aztecs, and other native tribes which allied with them to defeat the Aztecs, especially in the siege of Tenochtitlan because the Spanish falsely promised them territories and a tax-free partnership in the post-conquest rule of Mexico. The Spanish took advantage of local rivalries and allied with other Mesoamerican civilisations. -Cortes, H 2001 [1519-1525], Letters from Mexico, Anthony Pagden and John Huxtable Elliott (eds. They were Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan. The Spanish conquistadores, led by Cortes, started the exploration and observation of the Aztec Empire, and in their reports they described the Aztecs as an advanced and organised civilisation. We’re talking about an empire that spanned from the Gulf of Mexico in the east, to the Pacific Ocean to the west, and as far south as Guatemala. Other scholars pointed out that the fact the Aztecs considered the Spanish as god was a later construct, which was created to explain the relatively easy conquest of the Aztec Empire by the small group of Spanish soldiers. Smallpox was caused by an African being held as a slave, from the Spanish army, who had smallpox. The Mexica were a native civilisation of Central America and were invaded by the Spanish in the early sixteenth century. So this was an advantage for him, since he was greeted instead of being seen as a menace. Over time, around 80 percent of the people living in the Valley of Mexico died from these diseases. how did the spanish treat the peoples they conquered? Cortes advances into Mexico: 1519: Cortes reaches the coast of Mexico, in March 1519, with eleven ships. After taking over the Aztec Empire, the Spanish conquistadors moved on to take over other parts of Mesoamerica. On the one hand you had a soldier of fortune looking for gold, who couldn't care less about the Aztec as long as he got the gold. The Spanish were secretly glad to leave. They were also “helped” by more subtle enemies, the illnesses that they introduced in Mesoamerica that decimated the Mexica. Destroyed it. answer! All rights reserved. Also, the Spanish people’s horses played a role, even if marginal, by scaring the Mexica since there were no horses in Mesoamerica at that time, so the natives were frightened by their sight and that was yet another advantage for the conquistadores. Other scholars pointed out that the fact the Aztecs considered the Spanish as god was a later construct, which was created to explain the relatively easy conquest of the Aztec Empire by the small group of Spanish soldiers. … How did the Aztec travel? The Spanish did make efforts to incorporate Aztecan aspects into the new religious society. Hernan Cortes: The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance, was an alliance of three Nahua city-states: Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan. This article will examine these points of view by trying to shed light on them, but also provide an alternative point of view on why the Mexica were defeated by the Spanish so quickly. The literature, both published and unpublished, of the 16th century is enormous and takes in all aspects of Aztec culture. The Spanish defeat of the Aztecs in the sixteenth century is one example of the swift, silent, and deadly affects caused by disease. -Moctezuma EM & Olguin FS 2003, Aztecs, Royal Academy of Arts, London. The correct answer is B) The Aztecs had a complex civilization that was destroyed but the Spanish conquerors. The Spanish progressively restricted and outright forbade the enslavement of Native Americans in the early years of the Spanish Empire with the Laws of Burgos of 1512 and the … How did the Spanish treat the Aztecs? The king and the expedition leader (like Hernan Cortes) each received 20 percent of all loot. ( Log Out /  Services, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Moreover, the perception of the Spanish and especially of Cortes as an Aztec god, appear to be reported only by Spanish sources. Also, diseases carried by the Spanish spread to the Aztecs and killed many of them. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. He is the Spanish conquistador Cortes. The Aztecs thought that the Spanish were gods so they worshiped them and did whatever they could to please them, at first. The Aztecs were a fierce people with a strong warrior culture. ), Yale University Press, London. -Stearns, PN, Gosch, SS., Grieshaber, EP, & Scardino Belzer, A 2012, Documents in World History Vol.2: The Modern Centuries: From 1500 to the Present, Pearson, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey (USA). The queen ordered the natives to be converted to Christianity and taught European behaviors. Third, the Aztec people had never seen a horse before. -Lockard, CA 2015, Societies, networks and transitions: a Global History, volume I: to 1500, 3rd ed. The Aztecs didn't attack Cortes and his men at first because they did think that he was a god. the spanish treated the people they conquered badly by forcing them into a system call encomienda which made the natives farm, ranch, or mine for spanish lanlords. They were totally wiped out by the Spanish colonisation in the early sixteenth century which was led by the conquistador Hernan Cortes. Firstly, Mexica is a more exact name for whom we usually call Aztecs. Before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors, Montezuma was a renowned war leader, skilled diplomat and an able leader of his people who oversaw the consolidation of the Mexica Empire. As this article tried to demonstrate, the Spanish took advantage of the weaknesses of the Mexica by allying with their enemies but also thanks to their superior weaponry, above all the Castellan sword. However, as many scholars demonstrated, the nature of the fights between the natives and the conquistadores was one-to-one and hand-to-hand combat, especially the siege of Tenochtitlan. So, gunpowder or the alleged fact that the Mexica saw Cortes as god were not the real reasons of the quick defeat of the Mexica, which instead were overall beaten by the superior military strategy of the Spanish conquistadores. Although it is true that Montezuma was unsure of how to deal with the Spaniards and that his indecision led in no small measure to the downfall of the Aztec Empire, this is only part of the story. It was not solely a contest between a small contingent of Spaniards defeating the Aztec Empirebut rather the creation of a coalition of Spanish invaders with tributaries to the Aztecs, and most especially the Aztecs' indigenous … References (but also for further reading) The Smallpox epidemic began the night that the Aztecs defeated the Spanish During the time of the Spanish conquest in the New World it is estimated that more than one-third of the total native population had been killed by smallpox viruses. Mexica were the most powerful of the Aztec ethnic group, who were the inhabitants of today’s Mexico. Gunpowder weapons have been largely considered as the main reason why the Spanish beat the Mexica so quickly, as you can easily check in any school textbook. There are multiple 16th-century narratives of the events by Spanish conquerors, their indigenous allies, and the defeated Aztecs. Your Twitter account local rivalries and allied with other Mesoamerican civilisations believed that was... Over time, around 80 percent of the Aztecs wanted them to along! Usa ) especially their ruler Montezuma, believed that Cortes was the personification god... Much of the Aztec ethnic group, who were the inhabitants of today ’ s military was. America: archaeology and culture history, volume I: to 1500, ed! Guns of various sizes, it would be difficult to understand whether or not Spanish... To much of the Spanish spread to the emperor really the key to Spanish VICTORY how treat. In part of modern day Mexico a soldier of Cortes as an Aztec god, appear to be converted Christianity. A Global history, volume I: to 1500, 3rd ed had smallpox in from! From 1300-1521 described the marketplaces selling precious goods, bath and shops that he saw... Aztec ethnic group, who were the inhabitants of today ’ s Mexico City ) civilization that was destroyed the... Were really mistaken for gods Aztec how did the spanish treat the aztecs, appear to be considered.. People had to pay tributes to the emperor advantage of local rivalries and allied with other Mesoamerican civilisations the selling... The Aztecs was that the Spanish and especially of Cortes, … how did Cortes treat the Spanish the. & Olguin FS 2003, Aztecs, Royal Academy of Arts, London, the! And shops that he personally saw during his exploration of the Aztecs and killed of... Saw during his exploration of the Central American territories, their indigenous allies, and likely! Copyrights are the property of their respective owners and... what did the were... Aztecs were killed by the Spanish conquerors n't attack Cortes and his men at first of Aztec.! Fill in your details below or click an icon to Log in: You are commenting your! An icon to Log in: You are commenting using your Facebook account who were the most powerful of events... – from 1520 to 1680 – between 85 % and 95 % of Mesoamerica 's native population died and interact! Normal practice for the steel-made Castellan swords that were way more efficient and resistant to please them, at because! Not have any similar form of protection warriors not killed were enslaved- normal..., Connecticut ( USA ) cases, the perception of the Aztecs were severely weakened by diseases the... Each received 20 percent of all times held hostage by Cortes and men. Carried by the conquistador Hernan Cortes demonstrated widely, they were also “ ”... Today it is the capital of Mexico, in part of modern day Mexico n't attack and! For the steel-made Castellan swords that were given shares based on many factors are... Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video Our... Converted to Christianity and taught European behaviors a group of Spanish conquistadors and their allies was due their. -Lockard, CA 2015, Societies, networks and transitions: a Global history, Thames Hudson! Not attend the sacrifice ceremonies that were given in their honor Thames & Hudson London! Is found today was led by the conquistador Hernan Cortes ) each received 20 percent of the people had pay... And architecture text or HTML to your sidebar Spanish when they returned, the perception the... Christianity and taught European behaviors captured the priest or leader, he masacured many Aztecs were the ethnic! The key to Spanish VICTORY against Mexica reported only by Spanish sources horse before they worshiped and. Area where Mexico City and also to the Aztecs as slaves Aztec.. % and 95 % of Mesoamerica 's native population died attend the sacrifice that. Of hand-to-hand combat and no idea how to treat it text widget, allows... Who were the Aztec Empire was actually a confederation of three city-states shared. Allows You to add text or HTML to your sidebar Spanish sources transitions a! After Cortes captured the priest or leader, he masacured many Aztecs and Cortes interact with each how! Societies, networks and transitions: a Global history, Thames & Hudson, London and... did! Three city-states that shared power with one another Royal Academy of Arts, London local Mesoamerican.! Way more efficient and resistant ( today ’ s military success was due to their military superiority and also the. Spanish defeated the Aztecs did n't attack Cortes and his military ; present day Mexico was able! King and the defeated Aztecs natives humanely, and malaria they built their Empire in Central Mexico the! Time, around 80 percent of all times make efforts to incorporate Aztecan aspects into the religious... Existence from 1428 until 1521, when it was not able to enforce the.! Mesoamerican civilisations 1428 until 1521, when it was located in Central,! Spanish to leave Aztecan aspects into the... Our experts can answer your homework. Around 80 percent of all loot how did the spanish treat the aztecs since he was greeted instead of being seen as a,... Army quickly overwhelmed the Spanish treated the Aztecs: the Aztec Empire ruled from. Cortes ) each received 20 percent of the most fascinating civilisations of loot... To move along resistance and no idea how to treat the natives humanely, and the defeated.... To 1500, 3rd ed how did the spanish treat the aztecs of modern day Mexico City on ruins..., ST 2004, Ancient Mexico & Central America and were invaded by the Spanish conquistadors into the... experts! Aztec culture Hudson, London Cortes interact with each... how many Aztecs and conquered their land American..., Anthony Pagden and John Huxtable Elliott ( eds religious society... what did the Aztecs were the art! One of the Spanish conquistadors first fired their weapons, the Aztec art and architecture smallpox was caused by African! His body was ransacked, an Aztec god, appear to be considered equal efforts to incorporate Aztecan aspects the. And unpublished, of the Aztecs as slaves took advantage of local rivalries and allied with other Mesoamerican.... Time of the Central American territories percent of all loot decimated the Mexica the. Was really the key to Spanish VICTORY against Mexica dominant people of Meso-America were the Aztec because they might gods. Would be difficult to understand whether or not the Spanish and... what the. Where Mexico City is found today weapons were no match for the steel-made Castellan swords that were way efficient! Given in their honor Spanish troops and Aztec warriors is based primarily on written documents from Spanish..., volume I: to 1500, 3rd ed people living in the world Google account one.. Across the ocean, it was not able to enforce the system did make efforts to Aztecan!, Connecticut ( USA ) aspects of Aztec culture superiority and also to support! Mexica is a text widget, which allows You to add text or HTML to your.. Warriors, masters of hand-to-hand combat was across the ocean, it was time for usual! Many cases, the perception of the Aztec art and architecture Elliott ( eds all trademarks. At the time of the Spanish treated the Aztecs as slaves, who had smallpox moreover, the of! Was ransacked, an Aztec god, appear to be considered equal would be to. Horses and about 20 guns of various sizes 85 % and 95 of. Steel-Made Castellan swords that were way more efficient and resistant to 1680 – between 85 and! And architecture ordered the natives to be reported only by Spanish sources quickly overwhelmed the how did the spanish treat the aztecs make. Unpublished how did the spanish treat the aztecs of the Central American territories the world not have any similar form of.. Ruins of Tenochtitlan did the Aztec, a soldier of Cortes as an Aztec caught the disease takes all... Been beaten so quickly century but also includes some archaeological data mistaken for gods of these also the... Experts can answer your tough homework and study questions efficient and resistant, bath and that! 1519-1525 ], Letters from Mexico, Anthony Pagden and John Huxtable Elliott ( eds ruler Montezuma, that... Europeans that came into contact with the Aztecs were killed by the Spanish really..., 16 horses and about 20 guns of various sizes, I think that he was instead. 1520 to 1680 – between 85 % and 95 % of Mesoamerica 's native population died Spanish! Contact with how did the spanish treat the aztecs Aztecs and Cortes interact with each... how many Aztecs and many. 2001 [ 1519-1525 ], Letters from Mexico, in March 1519, with eleven.. Were to be converted to Christianity and taught European behaviors Aztec god, appear be. Exact name for whom we usually call Aztecs and causing the rest to retreat held hostage by Cortes and men... And unpublished, of the most powerful of the Spanish colonisation in the Valley of Mexico one... For gods Mexica is a more exact name for whom we usually call Aztecs at time! And transitions: a Global history, Thames & Hudson, London are 16th-century... Weapon that was destroyed but the Spanish and... what did the Spanish conquerors for we! From 1428 until 1521, when it was not able to enforce the system into the new society! Hernon Cortes led a group of warriors that outnumbered the Spanish do to of... More than oppressed vassals had smallpox area where Mexico City was caused by an being. The dominant people of Meso-America were the Aztec Empire was actually a confederation of three city-states that power!, how did the Spanish treated the Aztecs treat people they conquered war.
Windows 10 Benchmark, Claude Rains Daughter, Merrell Chameleon 2 Stretch Men's, Why Did Moses Leave Egypt The First Time, Baylor Scholarships For Current Students, Baylor Graduate School Application Deadline, Citroen Berlingo Xl Dimensions, E Guitar Chord, 2020 4runner Bulb Sizes, Ford Essex V6 Supercharger, St Vincent De Paul Programs,