The Great Awakening was one of the earliest Protestant revival movements to sweep through North Carolina. Revivalism happened in 18th century in western world among methodists. The British colonies were settled by many individuals who were looking for a place to worship their Christian religion free from persecution. McGready believed he was acting on a solemn charge to shine the light of truth on man’s desperate spiritual condition, that judgment awaited, and was possibly imminent: “The ungodly and finally impenitent will now be ripe for destruction…they shall reap a harvest of immortal woe…. [69][70] Under such an impression, McGready reasoned, it was no wonder a person cried for mercy or lost his strength. The phenomenon of religious revival has attracted considerable attention from scholars working in a variety of disciplines. [65] The instances of so-called “bodily exercises” became more widespread and dramatic. Once admitted to the table, the exclusivity ended. He was restored as a credentialed Presbyterian minister in 1806. McGready, James. At that time Lexington, the largest town in Kentucky, had less than 1,800 citizens. Presbyterians differed sharply from Methodists because of Calvinist doctrines of universal depravity and predestination, which contrasted with Methodists’ emphasis on free will and universal, rather than limited, atonement. In this context, McGready, like Edwards, believed that dramatic conversion experiences that caused people to swoon or cry out were the physical manifestation of unseen spiritual activity. To McGready, all such people were in need of conversion. Economic, political, demographic, and territorial transformations radically altered how Americans thought about themselves, their communities, and the rapidly expanding nation. By 1799, there were only twenty-six licensed Presbyterian ministers in Kentucky. There were people whose conversions completely turned their lives around. Plantation owners forbade religious practice among enslaved workers. Jesus would return to Earth on October 22, 1844. "[49] John Rankin carried the revival into eastern Tennessee and North Carolina in the fall of 1800, as the radius increasingly expanded outward from Logan County. Free African Americans founded the first African American colleges. The startling manifestations of revival fervor that first occurred in June 1800 at the Red River Meeting House, a small Presbyterian congregation led by James McGready, began as a Scottish sacrament service, but led to the important innovation of serial religious services later known as camp meetings. ; but such experience is described in scriptural accounts. July 16, 1821 Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science, was born. Similar results followed at subsequent sacrament observances as McGready and other area ministers traveled throughout the Cumberland region to congregations at Muddy River, Clay Lick, and The Ridge, a congregation in Tennessee.[33]. revivalists of the time, spread his version of the Good Word to Almost simultaneously with the Methodist movement, the Great Awakening began in America; given stimulus by Whitefield, revivals were started in 1720 by Theodore Frelinghuysen of New Jersey and in 1734 by Jonathan Edwards of Massachusetts. By the summer of 1798, the sacrament observances were the site of more conversions, but criticism circulated by rival Presbyterian minister James Balch, recently arrived from another community, brought conflict and doubt and, according to McGready, quelled the enthusiasm, so that again, stagnation followed. District in western New York. "[61] The so-called, "falling" behavior had come to characterize the revivals, as Cartwright reported that “Scores of sinners fell …like men slain in mighty battle; Christians shouted for joy. By Tuesday, his journal reflected the scene in pastoral language, noting that a stand had been erected, “embosomed in a wood of lofty beech trees. of hellfire-and-damnation preaching, the region produced dozens This was an early 19th century Protestant religious revival in the United States. "[90] “The greatest part” Watts wrote, “are suited…to the most common affairs of Christians. Asbury had encountered the Cumberland area revivals in October 1800. By the time the meetings took place at the congregations of Muddy River and at several other congregations in Tennessee and Kentucky in the late summer and fall of 1800, camping had become common. McGready’s delivery was provocative and penetrating. Hymn singing had been an important part of the sacrament season and continued to be a vital expression of religious feeling during the revivals. The directions and destinations of the principal actors during the Revivals that spanned 1800-1801 were as varied as the evangelical expressions they fostered. Further, McGready believed that deism denied the supernatural aspects of the Bible and its preeminence as “the strongest bond of civil government. From the late 17th to the mid-18th century, Protestantism in Germany and Scandinavia was revitalized by the movement known as Pietism. New England, for example, attracted a huge following because of their He turned south before reaching Logan County and headed toward Nashville; his journal reflected his mood on Thursday, Oct. 16, 1800: “In travelling nearly six hundred measured miles, we have had only six appointments; and at these but small congregations: we have wearied ourselves in vain!. Many modern studies of colonial American revivalism focus on New England and homogenize the religious revivals of the period with “The Great Awakening,” a term not invented until the 1840s. The nineteenth century awakened to scattered signs of revival in New England, but it was a camp meeting in Cane Ridge, Kentucky, in 1801 that became the symbol and standard of religion in the early republic. In England a revival led by John Wesley and others eventually resulted in the Methodist movement. "[82], Aside from his primary concern for the conversion of individuals, McGready also expressed an urgency to battle popular philosophies and religious doctrines that had advanced in connection with the rhetoric of the American Revolution, especially deism. Though many Millerites lost faith when Jesus failed to show up, In 1802, the year after his conversion in Logan County, Peter Cartwright’s family moved farther west in Kentucky, and he was licensed as a Methodist exhorter and circuit rider in the newly formed circuit there. America has a deep, rich history of revivals and awakenings. McGready realized the potential for the innovation when protracted meetings continued into the night, and one family at Red River came ready to camp for the duration. Begun in Scotland after the tumultuous changes of the Scottish Reformation in the mid-seventeenth century, the sacrament season replaced Catholic Corpus Christi festivals. As the area’s first resident Presbyterian minister, he led three small congregations: The largest was Red River, with about twenty-five members. the name of Jesus has no charms; and it is rarely mentioned unless to be profaned. He continued preaching and farming but eventually added political office to his resume, defeating Abraham Lincoln in 1832 for a seat in the Illinois legislature. June 21, 1821 The African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Zion Church was founded in New York City. The Revival of 1800 began a golden age of religious interest. attracted several hundred thousand Christians who believed that [81] McGready’s focus on the need of the people for regeneration was not reserved for overt sinners, but also for church members who relied on exhibiting a moral life and knowledge of the Westminster catechism, but had not experienced a saving change. … Francis Asbury subsequently employed and enlarged upon many of the elements he encountered in the revivals of 1800 and 1801. It expanded outward in all directions, attracting the attention of evangelical leaders such as Presbyterian-turned-Disciples of Christ leader, Barton Stone, and Methodists Francis Asbury and Peter Cartwright, as well as leaders in the Shaker and Cumberland Presbyterian movements, all of whom attended the revival meetings in their initial year-long period, beginning in June 1800 and continuing through May 1801. His account reveals that he was most impressed by what he regarded as the extraordinary ability of children to exhort as a result of their conversions. The revival meetings continued throughout the fall with similar and escalating response among the people. ND. Conservative revival preaching sometimes spawned radical Bishop Berkeley wrote that morality and religion in Britain had collapsed "to a degree that was never known in any Christian country." He died there in 1817. McGready likened these to biblical examples of people leaping for joy, but at the same time, said that these movements were not orchestrated or integrated as part of the worship service. Though McGready had earlier claimed that fellow minister Thomas Craighead had supported the revivals, by 1801, he and other Presbyterian ministers, including Logan County minister, James Balch, who had opposed McGready as early as 1797, aligned against the revival party led by McGready, Hodge, McAdow, McGee and Rankin. The events represented a transition from British traditions to innovations arising from the unique needs and culture of Americans in the new century, especially on the frontier. "[37] Using the term "slain", that came to be associated with the revival phenomenon of collapsing in a state of physical helplessness, McGee continued: “The floor was soon covered with the slain; their screams for mercy pierced the heavens.”[38]. Unpublished paper, Old Sturbridge Village. The ministers of God, Methodists and Presbyterians, united their labors and mingled with the childlike simplicity of primitive times.”[54] Asbury echoed McGready’s account of the meetings and activities extending into the night as he wrote of “fires blazing here and there [that] dispelled the darkness” as “the shouts of the redeemed captives, and the cries of the precious souls struggling into life broke the silence of midnight. "[36] McGee turned to go back and was “near falling” when he changed his mind and “went through the house shouting and exhorting with all possible ecstasy and energy. It included outdoor preaching, large numbers of attendees, who had often traveled long distances, long vigils of prayer, and often dramatic conversion experiences. John McGee reported that most were Presbyterians and Methodists. a person's own actions determine their salvation. During this time, America saw a “revival” of religious interest and fervor. [98] John Rankin and several members of his Gasper River congregation joined the Shaker community at South Union, Kentucky, in 1808. Among the other manifestations of revival fervor, people increasingly exhibited “the jerks”—convulsive or rhythmical motions of the body that continued involuntarily despite attempts to calm them. The numbers attending, and those converted, had continued to grow, as did the number of ministers who preached and directed the sacrament observances. Women became more involved than men, and preachers soon used the revival to promote "women's sphere." "[35] John McGee began to tremble as weeping erupted through the congregation. of the Millerite movement; projected 1844 as "[73] McGready accepted children as young as eight in the sacrament based on their conversion experiences, rather than satisfactory answers to questions based on the catechism, one of the usual requirements for participating in communion. The Great Awakening, 1734-43. meetings, Founder 1. [79] He was ecumenical in his invitation to Methodists and others to assist him in revivals, although he disagreed with them on theological matters. The Great Awakening was an evangelical revival of Christianity that swept through the American colonies in the early to mid 1700s and influenced societal changes in religion and politics. [31] At Red River, McGready reported the conversion of “bold and daring sinners” weeping bitterly. By 1820, the new denomination had twice as many congregations in the Cumberland region as the original Presbyterians. "[43] Less narrative and descriptive than McGee’s, McGready’s accounts focused on the chronological unfolding of events. Thomas Carlyle described the country's condition as "Stomach well alive, soul extinct." of new denominations, communal societies, and reform movements. Thirteen wagons were employed to transport people and supplies, and the excitement was so great that some stayed at the meeting house through the night. He left Logan County in 1807 and moved to Henderson, Kentucky, to minister to a congregation he had pioneered during the 1800 revivals. Barton Stone, who had long harbored doubts about the doctrine of election, left the Presbyterians in 1804 and led a group calling themselves simply, “Christians.” He later joined the Disciples of Christ, a group begun by Alexander Campbell. There was created a network of zealous Christians eager for a fast spiritual tempo. As states disestablished their churches following the war, the Anglican Church in the South was particularly affected, having fallen out of favor during the Revolution because of its association with Great Britain. [41] People responded and came on several wagons loaded with provisions and ready to camp for the July observance. Religious bodies and religious affairs are not subject to any foreign domination. Free African Americans founded the first African American colleges. The religious excitement at Red River inspired what would later become a regular feature of Kentucky revivalism—camping at the site. [86] McGready’s fondness for, and use of, hymns is evidenced in the many instances of popular hymns quoted in his sermons. Finney’s early meetings were held in the frontier communities of upper New York state, and he received, at best, a mixed reception. The startling manifestations of revival fervor that first occurred in June 1800 at the Red River M… In 1800, Cane Ridge, Kentucky became the birthplace for a great revival in the "Wild West". Deism was rampant, and a bland, philosophical morality was standard fare in the churches. [60] His family’s home in present-day Adairville, Kentucky, was three miles south of McGready’s Red River Meeting House. Watts purposefully avoided the exalted language favored by the poets of his day so that his hymns would be understandable and relatable to the “weakest souls. People believed that they could create a better society, based on Christian morals and culture. His narrative vividly described the revival’s beginnings: “All was silent until Monday, the last day of the feast. The four-day pattern was common: Friday was designated as a day of fasting and prayer. Several ministers with whom he had worked in Guilford County, including William Hodge, John Rankin, William McAdow, and the brothers John and William McGee, would eventually join him to minister in various congregations in the Cumberland frontier of middle Tennessee and southwestern Kentucky. Many new religions … Because they were memorized and enlarged upon during the preaching, many in his audiences may have been unaware that he had written the sermons in advance. All American churches began to protest discrimination and slavery. March 29, 1819 Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, founder of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and the Hebrew Union College, was born. "[51] Although his account was not published until 1803, there is evidence from others, including Francis Asbury, that McGready’s written testimony circulated much earlier. Many churches experienced a great increase in membership, and the revival stimulated moral reforms, such as the temperance movement. The religion of the new American republic was evangelicalism, which, between 1800 and the Civil War, was the "grand absorbing theme" of American religious life. Denominational cooperation, a hallmark of the revivals that began in Logan County, was not necessarily uncommon among frontier preachers, because of the needs related to planting new churches and religious societies in the demanding circumstances of backcountry settlements. "[56] By May 1802, a revival officiated by three Methodists, four Baptists, and eleven Presbyterians was held in the Waxhaw region of South Carolina, where thousands attended. It is possible that the persistence of Christian symbolism in Eastern Europe’s public square may yet inspire a genuine religious revival in the region. The now familiar scenes of the Kentucky and Tennessee revivals were repeated here" “on Saturday and Sunday several hundred in the congregation fell to the ground and felt they had received pardon. It was a period of great optimism, with the possibilities of self-governance infusing everything from religion to politics. - [Instructor] Okay, so we've been talking about The Second Great Awakening and its context in early 19th century America. Major leaders included Asahel Nettleton , James Brainerd Taylor , Charles Grandison Finney , Lyman Beecher , Barton Stone , Alexander Campbell , Peter Cartwright and James B. Finley . Protestant preachers held camp meetings where they preached to large groups of people. [96], In Logan County, the revival peaked in 1801, but waned by degrees thereafter as each of McGready’s three original congregations faced challenges by anti-revivalists. Not surprisingly, Presbyterian membership suffered from the loss of many of its members to other denominations. By 1800, the population had almost tripled to 221,000, and had expanded farther west, spurred by the decisive Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. Christian History Interview — Revivals That Changed a Nation Many history textbooks practically ignore the spiritual ferment of the early 1800s. Religious Revival The term antebellum , “before the war,” is often used by historians to refer to the decades before the Civil War in the United States. Chapter 6 is an excellent account of the Burchard revivals in Vermont. This religious revival, which actually encompassed two parts separated by a few decades, established several new sects of Methodists, Baptists, and … March 29, 1819 Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, founder of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and the Hebrew Union College, was born. “Deist Monster: On Religious Common Sense in the Wake of the American Revolution.”. Widespread religious fervor was a central feature of the Temperance and Prohibition eras. Johnathon May Professor Roberts September 22, 2020 Reform and Revival During the early 1800s, America began to see a shift in religious views that would eventually lead to social uplift. [97] The Red River congregation eventually became affiliated with the Cumberland Presbyterians and the Muddy River congregation split, with the revivalist faction forming a new church called Liberty. [47] Attendance at the various meetings continued to grow, with five thousand reported at Hodge’s Shiloh congregation in Tennessee in September. As James Morone wrote in his recent book, Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History, \"With preachers announcing that the millennium lay at hand, men and women began to swear off hard spirits; the yearning for perfection drew them until they were pledging total abstinence\" (284). The Second Great Awakening led to a period of antebellum social reform and an emphasis on salvation by institutions. When Stone returned from the May 1801 Gasper River sacrament, he discovered that even telling the story of the Logan County revivals elicited some of the bodily exercises he had seen there. p. 57) also had some This is, indeed, the solemn, dreadful harvest day; the tares are separated from the wheat, and… cast into everlasting fire. "[48] Poor accommodations and wet weather did not slow the pace in October, at Clay Lick, described by McGready as a small congregation with only a small cabin for a meeting house. During the American Civil War, several significant spiritual revivals took place in both the northern and southern armies. the Mormons believed that God had entrusted them with a new set T. L. Douglass.”. camps in rural areas that attracted thousands of new converts. During this time, America saw a … [14] Sectarian controversies were common among the churches in the more settled areas. For several decades, the party acquiesced or even encouraged a religious revival. 2", "A Short Narrative of the Revival of Religion in Logan County in the State of Kentucky and the Adjacent Settlements in the State of Tennessee from May 1797, until September 1800", http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/foote/foote.html#p367, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Revival_of_1800&oldid=986283405, History of Christianity in the United States, Articles with failed verification from September 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Cousland, Kenneth H. “The Significance of Isaac Watts in the Development of Hymnody.”, Edwards. Camp meetings became a mainstay of Methodism throughout the nineteenth century, helping to flood Methodist congregations with new members. The Revival of 1800, also known as the “Red River Revival”, was a series of evangelical Christian meetings which began in Logan County, Kentucky. He spent the day among many of the revival ministers—Hodge, Rankin, the McGee brothers and Thomas Craighead—as well as a thousand worshippers, many camping on the grounds of the meeting house. More than this, the country showed a general lack of interest in religion, focusing instead on populating the western frontier, regaining economic footing, and creating a new nation. Contemporaries noted that throughout the United States revivals of religion were regularly occurring. movement attracted many of the nation’s foremost intellectuals, Which best describes an important issue in the early 1800s? Religious Revival & Social Reform. Though the revivals continued to attract crowds, opposition to them was significant enough that one Sunday, McGready had to preach from the steps of his Red River meeting house, having been locked out by an anti-revivalist church member.[68]. Followers eventually Later that month, twenty-two wagons arrived at the Muddy River sacrament, and more than fifty persons converted throughout the multi-day observance.[46]. a variety of gospels on circuit routes, setting up revivalist of scriptures called the Book of Mormon. improve society. Not long after arriving in Logan County, McGready began trying to convince the people of his congregations of the need for a religion that was experiential and life altering. [58], Peter Cartwright’s family had moved to Logan County in 1793, when he was eight years old. In July 1800, the first camp meeting of the Second Great Awakening took place near the Gasper River. It was a period of great optimism, with the possibilities of self-governance infusing everything from religion to politics. By May of his first year, some in his Gasper River congregation felt the first stirrings of revival when eight or nine people were converted. The Red River congregation had been pioneered by Thomas Craighead, who, in 1785, was the first minister to serve the Kentucky frontier community from his base in the Nashville, Tennessee area. The other two were at Gasper River, and Muddy River. Founded by Joseph Smith in 1830, The religious aspect mostly emphasizes Vedanta tradition and mystical interpretations of Hinduism, and the societal aspect was an important … [92] The egalitarian sentiment that found expression during the revivals translated to an increase in the number of evangelicals who opposed slavery. beginning of a great national revival which would sweep an estimated one million persons into the kingdom of God. However, there was a growing seam of doubt. CBN News looks at the history of this remarkable event. An exhorter was a lay person who preached an informal or impromptu sermon, encouraging others toward experiential conversion, often immediately after his own conversion. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, or Mormons, Religion in the 19th century. The period also saw the greatest burst of church building since the Middle Ages. The struggle of seekers like Nancy and Joseph to “get religion” and of clergymen hoping to win converts and strengthen their churches triggered religious revivals that swept the northeastern United States in the early decades of the 1800s. This lead to the 'Great Religious Revival of the American West'. [39][40] Previous to 1800, long-distance travelers attending the multi-day sacrament observance would make arrangements to stay with neighboring families, but as the news of the revivals spread, the combination of the people’s desire to linger, and the practicalities associated with the needs of large numbers of people from great distances, inspired families to come prepared to camp at the site. The pulse of mass revival felt in America in 1857–58 nevertheless extended, via Ulster, to Britain in 1859–60. Throughout the Victorian age, religion was a dominant force in the lives of many. The movement started around 1800, had begun to gain momentum by 1820, and was in decline by 1870. [67] Similar criticisms had arisen in Logan County the year before, but the growing success of the revivals had served to drown them out. and early 1840s, On Saturday, further inward preparation continued with preaching, usually by several ministers. "[15], When McGready came to Logan County, he brought with him a long tradition known as the Scottish sacrament season, which was still being practiced regularly by Presbyterian congregations. period was also marked by a flurry of religious revivalism that "[83] Other ministers shared his concerns. Named for its overabundance Periodic religious revivals which seek to restore commitment and attachment to the group are a regular sociological feature of religious traditions. In the Irish context, this is especially true in the case of Presbyterianism whose origin is often traced to the Six Mile Water revival of 1625 and is closely associated with the spectacular revival of 1859. Soon reform movements designed to improve the worst evils of industrial emerged from the churches … This page was last edited on 30 October 2020, at 22:06. Many of … The antebellum decades were also a period during which another religious revival swept the country, reformers sought to address many of the social questions that the politicians would not or could not, and American culture, defined through its literature and art, came into its own. Non-participants included children and observers who were unsure of their status as among the converted, and many were curious bystanders and irreligious people who had come for social, rather than religious reasons. Because some Mormons practiced polygamy, Revival preachers such as McGready circumvented many of the doctrinal controversies during the revivals by stressing the common belief in the necessity of an experience of “saving change.”[72]. The events represented a transition from British traditions to innovations arising from the unique needs and culture of Americans in the new century, especially on the frontier. The difficulty with this view is establishing a definite link between economic conditions and revivals. “Watts in America. Learn more about the Second Great Awakening and its impact on American Protestantism. The churches were recovering from the cultural readjustment of post-revolutionary America that, in many cases, left institutional religion in a weakened state. Set apart from the rest of the congregation, these tables were often covered with the best and finest linens available and sometimes “fenced” with a rail as the minister described the qualifications of communicants as a further barrier against those who had not been formally invited and approved.[23]. Cartwright’s Methodist family had come to hear a popular Methodist preacher, one of the ministers assisting McGready. In Indiana in 1805, Tenskwatawa (called the Shanee Prophet by Americans) led a religious revival following a smallpox epidemic and a series of witch-hunts. This lead to the 'Great Religious Revival of the American West'. Harrison, Lowell H. and James C. Klotter. The religious revival of the mid-1800s was: C.) the Second Great Awakening. the movement prevailed for several decades. In March 1802, a camp meeting was organized in Mecklenberg, North Carolina, with about five thousand in attendance. 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